1119. Data Structure - Skip ListSkipList

Implement SkipList.

1. Skip List

1.2 Problem of Linked List

A linked list is represented by a sequence of nodes. Each node contains a link to another node. The worst case search time for a sorted linked list is O(n) as we can only linearly traverse the list and cannot skip nodes while searching.

1.2 Skip List

A skip list is a data structure that allows log(n) search complexity as well as log(n) insertion complexity within an ordered sequence of n elements. It skips over many of the items of the full list in one step, that’s why it is known as skip list.

1.3 Insert, Search and Delete

Insert 44. Search 44. Delete 25.

2. Implementation

Define skip list node.

public class SkipNode {
public int val;

public SkipNode left;
public SkipNode right;
public SkipNode up;
public SkipNode down;

public SkipNode(int val) {
this.val = val;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.up = null;
this.down = null;
}

public SkipNode(SkipNode lowerLevelNode) {
this.val = lowerLevelNode.val;
this.left = null;
this.right = null;
this.up = null;
this.down = lowerLevelNode;
}
}

List.

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class SkipList {
/*
* These are starting pointers. They are always from top layer.
*/
private SkipNode tail;

public SkipList() {
head = new SkipNode(Integer.MIN_VALUE);
tail = new SkipNode(Integer.MAX_VALUE);

}

public SkipNode search(int val) {
SkipNode curr = head;

while (curr != null) {
while (curr.right != null && curr.right.val <= val ) {
curr = curr.right;
}

if (curr.val == val) {
break;
}

curr = curr.down;
}

return curr;
}

public boolean insert(int data) {
List<SkipNode> pointersToUpdate = new ArrayList<>();

SkipNode curr = head;
while (curr != null) {
while (curr.right != null && curr.right.val < data ) {
curr = curr.right;
}

curr = curr.down;
}

// insert after this node.
int level = 0;
SkipNode newNode = null;

while (level == 0 || flipCoin()) {
// now move up.
if (newNode == null) {
newNode = new SkipNode(data);
} else {
newNode = new SkipNode(newNode);
}

SkipNode nodeToUpdate;

if (pointersToUpdate.size() <= level) {
createNewLayer();
} else {
nodeToUpdate = pointersToUpdate.get(pointersToUpdate.size() - level - 1);
}

// insert
newNode.right = nodeToUpdate.right;
newNode.left = nodeToUpdate;

newNode.right.left = newNode;
nodeToUpdate.right = newNode;

level++;
}

return true;
}

public boolean delete(int data) {
List<SkipNode> pointersToUpdate = new ArrayList<>();

SkipNode curr = this.head;
while (curr != null) {
while (curr.right != null && curr.right.val < data ) {
curr = curr.right;
}

if (curr.right.val == data) {
}

curr = curr.down;
}

for (int i = 0; i < pointersToUpdate.size(); i++) {
SkipNode nodeToUpdate = pointersToUpdate.get(i);
SkipNode nodeToDelete = nodeToUpdate.right;

nodeToUpdate.right = nodeToDelete.right;
nodeToDelete.right.left = nodeToUpdate;

nodeToDelete.up = null;
nodeToDelete.down = null;
}

return true;
}

private void createNewLayer() {
SkipNode newHead = new SkipNode(Integer.MIN_VALUE);
SkipNode newTail = new SkipNode(Integer.MAX_VALUE);

tail.up = newTail;
newTail.down = tail;
tail = newTail;
}

private boolean flipCoin() {
return Math.random() >= 0.5;
}

public void print() {
SkipNode curr = this.head;

while (curr.down != null) {
curr = curr.down;
}

curr = curr.right;

while (curr.right != null) {
System.out.print(curr.val + " ");
curr = curr.right;
}

System.out.println();
}

public void printAllLevel() {
SkipNode curr = this.head;

while (curr != null) {
SkipNode firstInLevel = curr;
firstInLevel = firstInLevel.right;

while (firstInLevel.right != null) {
System.out.print(firstInLevel.val + " ");
firstInLevel = firstInLevel.right;
}

curr = curr.down;
System.out.println();
}
}
}

Test.

public class SkipListExample {
public static void main( String[] args ) {
SkipList list = new SkipList();
list.insert(5);
list.insert(10);
list.insert(9);
list.insert(8);
list.insert(12);
list.insert(1);
list.insert(50);
list.insert(60);
list.insert(70);
list.insert(90);

list.print();
SkipNode node = list.search(9);
System.out.println(node.val);
//list.printAllLevel();

list.delete(10);
list.delete(1);
list.print();
//list.printAllLevel();
}
}

Output.

1 5 8 9 10 12 50 60 70 90
9
5 8 9 12 50 60 70 90