2401. Java Concurrency - Overview
Multi Threading

Create concurrent application with threadings.

1. How to Create a Java Thread?

Java lets you create thread in following two ways:

  • By implementing the Runnable interface.
  • By extending the Thread

1.1 Runnable Interface

public interface Runnable {
    void run();

Create a class to implement the interface.

public class MyClass implements Runnable {
    public void run(){
        System.out.println("MyClass running");

Create thread and run it.

Thread t1 = new Thread(new MyClass ());

1.2 Thread Class

Create a class to extend the Thread class.

public class MyClass extends Thread {
    public void run(){
        System.out.println("MyClass running");

Create thread and run it.

MyClass t2 = new MyClass();

1.2 Thread States

  • New - When a new thread is created, it is in the new state. (new Thread();)
  • Runnable - A thread that is ready to run is moved to runnable state. (t1.run();)
  • Blocked - When a thread is temporarily inactive, e.g. (require a lock)
  • Waiting - When a thread is temporarily inactive, e.g. (wait on a condition);
  • Timed Waiting - A thread lies in timed waiting state when it calls a method with a time out parameter. (Thread.sleep(1000);)
  • Terminated - A thread terminates because of either of the following reasons: Normally exits or interrupted.


2. Synchronization

Monitor, lock, race condition.Reentrant Lock, Intrinsic Lock

3. Thread Pool

6. Synchronizers

The java.util.concurrent package contains several classes that help manage a set of collaborating threads. These mechanisms have “canned functionality” for common rendezvous patterns between threads. If you have a set of collaborating threads that follow one of these behavior patterns, you should simply reuse the appropriate library class instead of trying to come up with a handcrafted collection of locks and conditions.

Class What It Does Notes
CyclicBarrier Allows a set of threads to wait until a predefined count of them has reached a common barrier, and then optionally executes a barrier action. Use when a number of threads need to complete before their results can be used. The barrier can be reused after the waiting threads have been released.
Phaser Like a cyclic barrier, but with a mutable party count. Introduced in Java SE 7.
CountDownLatch Allows a set of threads to wait until a count has been decremented to 0. Use when one or more threads need to wait until a specified number of events have occurred.
Exchanger Allows two threads to exchange objects when both are ready for the exchange. Use when two threads work on two instances of the same data structure, with the first thread filling one instance and the second thread emptying the other.
Semaphore Allows a set of threads to wait until permits are available for proceeding. Use to restrict the total number of threads that can access a resource. If the permit count is one, use to block threads until another thread gives permission.
SynchronousQueue Allows a thread to hand off an object to another thread. Use to send an object from one thread to another when both are ready, without explicit synchronization.

9. References